Aug 11

芯片级无原理图电路板维修要点

电路板维修技术

  北京慧博时代科技有限公司在早期电路板维修工作中,深切地了解到在进行无图纸电路板维修时其维修难度非常大,经过无数次维修挫折后独家创立了“无原理图芯片级维修技术”,今天,我们简单谈谈这方面的话题,希望对电路板维修技术爱好者有些帮助:

  一、电路板维修时,要讲究检修顺序才可找到解决问题的最短路径,避免乱捅乱拆,板维修不成,反致故障扩大。电路板维修就象医生给人看病,也讲究个“望闻问切”:

  1、“望”即检查故障板的外观,看上面有没有明显损坏的痕迹,有没有元件烧黑、炸裂,电路板有无受腐蚀引起的断线、漏电,电容有没有漏液,顶部有没有鼓起等;

  2、“闻”用鼻子嗅一嗅有没有东西烧焦的气味,这气味是从哪里发出的;

  3、“问”很重要,要详细地询问当事人,设备出故障当时的情况,从情况推理可能的故障部位或元件;

  4、“切”即动用一定的检测仪器和手段,分通电和不通电两种情况,检查电路部位或元件的阻值、电压、波形等,将好坏电路板对比测试,观察参数的差异等。

  二、如何进行芯片级无原理图电路板维修工作?

  图纸是死的,脑袋里的思想是活的,可以类比,可以推理,可以举一反三,一通百通。比如开关电源,总离不开振荡电路、开关管、开关变压器这些,检查时要检查电路有没有起振,电容有没有损坏,各三极管、二极管有没有损坏,不管碰到什么开关电源,操作起来都差不多,不必强求有电路图﹔比如单片机系统,包括晶振、三总线(地址线、数据线、控制线)、输入输出接口芯片等,检修起来也都离不开这些范围﹔又如各种运算放大器组成的模拟电路,纵它变化万千,在“虚短”和“虚断”的基础上去推理。具备了分析和推理的能力之后,即使遇到从未见过的设备,也只要从框图上搞明白大致结构就可以了。

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